Laboratory Medicine and Quality Assurance

Table. 7.

Distribution of analytical methods (principle) participated and coefficients of variation (%) according to principle of general chemistry in 2022

Test Method Trials
1st 2nd 3rd 4th
Lab* CC-22-01 CC-22-02 CC-22-03 Lab CC-22-04 CC-22-05 CC-22-06 Lab CC-22-07 CC-22-08 CC-22-09 Lab CC-22-10 CC-22-11 CC-22-12
Alanine amino­transferase 1,782 6.0 6.8 6.0 1,796 5.3 7.4 5.8 1,808 6.4 5.4 6.6 1,811 5.2 6.2 5.2
Dry chemistry 11 4.0 7.7 3.6 11 3.2 6.1 2.9 13 5.0 5.0 9.5 13 4.7 9.1 7.1
LDH with P5P 25 4.2 6.9 3.8 24 5.0 12.1 4.8 26 2.9 1.7 7.1 28 2.4 6.5 3.4
LDH without P5P 1,731 6.0 7.7 6.0 1,739 5.3 7.4 5.8 1,748 6.4 5.4 6.5 1,753 5.2 6.2 5.2
Other method 15 3.6 7.8 6.7 22 5.2 7.8 6.6 13 7.5 7.0 2.7 9 3.2 2.0 4.7
Albumin 1,640 4.8 4.8 4.9 1,654 5.1 5.0 5.1 1,659 4.7 3.9 4.9 1,666 5.0 4.8 5.0
Dye binding-BCG 1,610 4.7 4.8 4.9 1,620 5.1 5.0 5.1 1,631 4.9 3.9 4.9 1,642 5.0 4.7 5.0
Dye binding-BCP 10 2.7 2.1 2.8 13 3.1 1.9 0.0 17 2.0 3.1 0.0 17 2.5 1.7 2.8
Other method 15 2.4 1.5 4.9 21 3.5 3.2 2.9 11 4.0 4.0 3.9 7 1.6 7.6 6.8
Alkaline phosphatase 1,563 32.3 40.8 32.3 1,581 32.3 40.8 32.8 1,584 41.6 32.5 42.6 1,592 32.8 42.7 32.7
Other method 12 4.6 6.8 8.2 19 9.7 12.9 10.9 8 47.1 38.8 47.6 6 12.8 15.2 12.1
PNPP, AMP buffer 957 10.7 9.0 10.6 967 10.4 9.0 11.3 1,011 9.0 10.0 8.2 1,035 10.9 8.1 10.2
PNPP, DEA buffer 154 7.8 10.2 8.4 155 7.9 7.9 8.6 148 11.3 9.3 11.6 143 9.5 9.9 11.5
PNPP, EAE buffer 440 4.5 4.6 4.7 440 4.9 4.3 5.1 417 3.6 4.8 3.9 408 4.6 3.6 4.5
Amylase 872 19.0 12.3 18.9 883 19.6 12.3 19.4 886 11.8 18.9 12.1 890 18.6 12.0 19.1
Dry chemistry 9 4.3 6.9 5.1 9 2.9 5.6 3.8 9 5.7 5.3 6.5 9 5.3 9.4 4.9
Hydrolysis of 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-azido-deoxy-maltopentaoside 6 1.3 0.9 1.3 9 1.2 2.7 0.9 6 0.0 1.3 0.9 6 0.6 2.1 0.9
Hydrolysis of 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-galactopyranosylmaltoside 146 1.5 1.9 1.4 148 1.6 1.8 1.4 152 1.7 1.3 1.7 155 1.4 1.8 1.5
Hydrolysis of 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-α-D-maltotrioside 211 3.4 3.3 3.5 212 2.7 3.2 2.1 212 5.9 2.5 5.3 211 4.7 6.0 3.4
Hydrolysis of 4,6-ethylidene-4-nitrophenyl-maltoheptaose 371 6.3 4.1 6.6 375 6.4 3.9 6.5 387 3.7 4.5 3.7 388 5.1 4.1 6.4
Hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenylbenzyl-α-maltopentaose 128 19.2 10.2 19.2 127 19.3 10.8 18.8 120 10.5 18.2 10.5 119 19.2 10.7 19.1
Aspartate amino­transferase 1,781 5.4 6.3 5.4 1,796 5.4 6.5 5.6 1,808 5.4 5.3 6.1 1,811 5.0 5.1 5.2
Dry chemistry 11 3.4 8.1 1.8 11 4.0 12.7 3.2 13 9.2 4.6 9.1 13 2.7 10.7 3.2
MDH with P5P 14 2.6 3.7 2.3 14 2.4 2.5 2.2 18 2.2 2.9 2.1 20 2.4 3.1 2.1
MDH without P5P 1,741 5.4 6.3 5.4 1,749 5.5 6.5 5.6 1,764 5.3 5.3 6.1 1,769 5.1 5.1 5.2
Other method 15 5.8 4.6 4.8 22 4.9 6.5 4.9 13 6.6 7.3 5.7 9 6.0 4.5 6.4
Blood urea nitrogen 1,706 4.4 4.9 4.1 1,719 3.7 5.0 4.3 1,727 5.0 4.1 5.0 1,734 4.0 4.7 4.0
Other method 15 2.8 2.6 4.2 22 4.2 5.0 4.7 10 7.4 6.6 7.6 8 5.0 7.4 5.1
Urease with colorimetry 11 2.1 2.3 1.8 11 3.3 0.4 2.3 13 2.5 3.1 4.9 13 3.6 1.5 1.9
Urease with GLDH 1,680 4.3 5.0 4.2 1,686 3.7 5.0 4.2 1,704 5.0 4.0 5.0 1,713 4.0 4.7 4.0
Calcium 806 2.4 3.9 2.5 810 2.6 3.9 2.5 815 3.6 2.5 3.9 819 2.5 3.6 2.6
Colorimetry Arsenazo III 176 2.6 3.6 3.0 177 3.1 3.4 3.3 178 3.1 3.1 3.0 180 3.0 3.0 3.1
Colorimetry Methylxylenol blue 76 1.9 1.0 1.6 80 1.1 1.0 1.3 83 0.9 1.3 1.4 83 1.3 1.2 1.2
Colorimetry_OCPC 358 2.7 3.4 2.9 350 2.8 3.3 2.8 344 3.2 2.7 3.2 342 2.6 3.0 2.8
NM-BAPTA 181 1.3 1.0 1.3 187 1.3 1.7 1.5 192 1.4 1.2 1.0 194 1.4 1.5 1.3
Other method 14 2.8 3.0 2.8 15 3.8 3.2 3.4 16 3.1 2.4 3.4 18 2.0 1.3 1.2
Chloride 1,160 3.0 2.2 3.0 1,173 3.1 2.6 2.7 1,175 2.7 3.2 2.6 1,178 3.4 2.5 3.0
ISE, diluted 644 1.8 2.1 1.1 657 1.8 2.5 1.7 670 2.7 1.8 2.6 675 1.9 2.2 1.8
ISE, undiluted 510 2.5 1.7 2.5 510 2.5 2.2 2.5 500 2.2 2.6 2.1 496 2.7 2.1 2.4
Other method 6 1.7 2.0 1.3 6 1.5 3.8 1.5 5 2.9 0.7 2.7 7 2.2 3.1 1.6
Creatine kinase 735 4.4 3.2 4.3 741 4.1 3.3 4.2 746 3.0 3.7 3.5 753 4.4 2.9 4.1
Creatine phosphate to creatine 282 1.9 2.4 1.9 287 1.8 2.2 1.7 288 2.5 2.0 2.6 291 1.7 2.2 1.5
Creatine phosphate to creatine with activator 446 5.1 3.2 5.1 448 4.8 2.7 4.8 452 2.6 4.1 3.2 455 4.9 2.8 4.7
Dry chemistry 6 2.7 0.0 4.0 6 4.6 6.7 6.4 6 6.0 1.2 7.1 6 4.8 3.4 5.4
Direct bilirubin 821 10.6 19.4 10.7 829 9.2 19.1 10.7 834 20.4 11.7 18.2 842 9.6 19.4 9.0
Copper ion oxidation 41 10.8 7.5 11.3 42 9.3 12.7 7.5 42 15.4 11.9 14.1 43 4.8 10.3 9.1
Diazonium salt with blank 360 8.6 22.1 9.7 371 10.0 20.1 12.1 383 21.4 12.6 19.6 384 10.5 19.5 10.0
Diazo-sulfanilic acid with blank 36 18.9 38.1 18.1 34 24.4 31.7 27.8 33 36.9 29.0 45.8 34 26.1 38.0 29.9
Diazo-sulfanilic acid without blank 26 17.3 18.7 19.4 27 7.1 15.9 5.6 25 11.8 7.7 21.9 25 8.0 15.2 8.4
Other method 5 17.2 25.2 24.4 6 18.9 21.3 19.7 5 13.0 32.8 11.9 6 48.5 24.8 52.1
Vanadate oxidation 351 10.7 5.9 10.7 347 5.3 5.3 5.5 345 10.3 5.6 10.9 349 6.1 12.0 4.9
Gamma-glutamyl transferase 1,728 5.5 5.8 5.5 1,746 5.4 5.8 5.4 1,756 5.8 5.1 5.7 1,760 4.8 5.6 4.5
Gamma-glutamyl-carboxy-nitroanilide 1,683 5.5 5.8 5.5 1,694 5.4 5.5 5.4 1,713 5.7 5.1 5.6 1,721 3.8 5.5 4.5
Gamma-glutamyl-p-nitroanilide 19 5.8 6.7 5.7 19 6.8 6.3 6.1 18 8.0 7.3 8.7 18 6.0 6.2 8.0
G-glutamyl-p-nitroanilide (dry chemistry) 10 3.5 5.4 3.7 10 1.9 3.1 1.4 12 7.1 2.8 6.2 12 2.7 10.3 2.3
Other method 16 5.3 7.4 3.6 23 4.1 3.4 4.0 13 5.0 6.5 4.1 9 7.7 4.2 8.8
Glucose 1,758 2.8 4.0 2.8 1,772 2.6 3.7 2.6 1,785 3.5 2.3 3.7 1,788 2.4 3.0 2.7
Glucose oxidase 468 3.0 3.8 2.8 469 2.7 2.7 2.8 463 3.4 2.9 3.8 470 2.6 3.8 3.1
Hexokinase 1,274 2.7 2.9 2.7 1,280 2.3 3.3 2.4 1,310 2.8 2.2 2.9 1,310 2.3 2.7 2.3
Other method 16 4.7 5.0 4.3 23 2.0 4.8 3.1 12 4.7 3.4 2.8 8 4.8 6.3 5.1
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol 1,636 11.8 16.0 12.2 1,656 19.4 17.2 18.1 1,669 12.6 18.8 13.4 1,674 17.9 12.0 19.7
Enzymatic with detergent 834 8.9 8.2 9.0 863 9.2 8.5 12.6 899 7.5 9.5 8.4 909 9.1 8.2 7.5
Enzymatic with electrostatic 16 0.0 2.8 0.0 16 3.4 2.6 0.0 17 2.5 4.6 3.1 17 0.0 3.2 0.0
Enzymatic with immunoinhibition 141 6.9 13.6 7.3 120 8.4 14.4 3.7 102 8.9 6.2 9.0 99 5.7 10.3 7.0
Enzymatic with others 244 11.3 14.4 13.6 246 22.5 14.2 21.7 245 15.4 23.6 17.1 240 28.9 20.3 28.0
Enzymatic with polyanion precipitation 114 9.3 6.0 9.0 114 8.4 6.5 6.3 110 5.7 9.0 7.7 113 6.7 5.6 6.8
Enzymatic with polyethylene glycol 270 0.0 3.0 3.2 273 4.3 2.7 0.0 282 3.0 4.6 2.9 284 4.1 2.4 4.8
Other method 17 6.9 9.5 8.6 24 13.2 12.8 12.2 14 10.3 15.2 11.2 12 21.7 12.6 28.6
Iron 449 3.5 3.4 3.9 451 4.1 3.5 3.4 456 3.2 3.8 3.4 459 3.6 2.9 4.0
Bathophenanthroline without deproteinization 125 2.8 1.6 2.4 123 2.5 1.7 2.5 120 1.8 2.1 1.7 120 2.8 1.7 2.5
Ferrozine without deproteinization 176 2.5 1.9 2.5 178 1.4 1.6 2.4 181 1.7 2.5 1.7 187 2.3 1.4 2.5
Nitroso-PSAP without deproteinization 57 1.5 1.1 2.2 58 1.3 1.1 1.4 64 1.0 1.9 1.1 65 1.3 0.9 1.9
Pyridyl AZO dye ascorbate without deproteinization 2 4.4 5.2 7.2 2 10.4 21.3 12.0 2 2.2 14.5 0.5 2 20.6 0.5 20.6
Tripyridyltriazine without deproteinization 88 2.4 1.5 2.7 89 1.4 0.8 2.3 87 1.3 2.1 1.2 84 1.4 1.0 2.1
Lactate dehydrogenase 929 4.8 4.4 4.8 933 5.0 4.0 4.8 944 4.6 4.8 4.7 948 4.7 4.1 4.4
Lactate to pyruvate 690 4.2 4.0 4.3 695 4.2 3.6 4.2 719 3.8 4.2 3.9 731 4.4 4.0 4.2
Pyruvate to lactate 231 7.8 8.7 7.7 228 7.6 9.5 8.0 216 7.9 7.0 8.2 208 6.7 7.9 6.7
Pyruvate to lactate (dry chemistry) 7 1.8 3.9 1.4 7 4.3 8.3 4.7 7 5.6 0.6 6.8 7 2.3 5.2 1.7
Lipase 482 16.1 6.9 15.9 490 18.1 9.5 17.7 496 10.3 17.7 11.0 499 17.2 10.1 19.7
Hydrolysis of 1,2-diglyceride with quinone dye 88 2.6 3.8 2.8 87 2.5 3.3 1.9 86 1.5 2.4 2.3 85 1.6 1.6 1.9
Hydrolysis of 1,2-O-dilauryl-rac-glycero-3-glutaric acid-(6'-methylresorufin) ester 386 18.2 6.5 18.0 394 19.8 9.2 19.4 402 9.9 22.0 10.2 406 19.3 10.1 21.3
Hydrolysis of 1-oleoyl-2,3-diacetyl glycerol 8 2.0 4.4 2.2 8 0.0 1.3 0.0 8 2.8 0.0 3.6 8 0.0 4.4 0.0
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 1,003 7.4 9.6 8.1 1,018 9.1 8.7 9.0 1,024 8.2 8.5 12.1 1,025 11.5 10.7 9.0
Enzymatic with detergent 810 6.2 8.1 6.3 842 7.5 5.5 6.7 865 7.6 6.6 11.4 866 9.2 10.6 7.3
Enzymatic with others 168 12.5 10.8 12.4 152 13.8 12.1 14.3 140 8.9 14.0 12.7 139 15.2 10.6 12.6
Enzymatic with polyethylene glycol 19 8.3 8.9 5.7 16 9.7 10.3 13.2 14 2.2 5.4 5.5 14 6.6 3.5 4.7
Other method 6 16.0 20.2 15.6 8 15.4 13.4 17.0 5 15.3 22.5 21.6 6 29.2 24.2 27.2
Magnesium 335 2.0 3.4 2.0 341 1.8 3.3 1.9 341 3.3 2.0 0.0 343 1.7 3.3 1.9
Colorimetry xylidyl blue 331 2.0 3.4 2.0 337 1.8 3.2 1.9 334 3.3 2.0 0.0 335 2.8 3.2 1.8
Other method 2 3.1 0.0 11.8 2 1.6 0.0 0.0 5 5.8 2.2 4.5 6 2.1 2.8 1.1
Osmolality 183 1.0 1.2 1.0 186 0.9 1.1 1.1 187 1.1 0.9 1.2 187 1.0 1.1 0.8
Freezing point depression osmometer 178 1.0 1.2 0.8 181 0.9 1.1 1.1 183 1.1 0.9 1.1 184 0.9 1.1 0.8
Other method 5 29.1 32.2 28.7 5 28.2 34.0 28.0 4 35.5 34.8 38.3 3 29.2 30.5 29.8
Phosphorus 746 2.9 3.4 2.8 753 2.5 3.4 2.9 754 3.3 2.8 2.5 759 2.7 2.4 2.7
Molybden blue colorimetry 197 1.9 2.0 1.9 199 1.8 2.3 1.9 205 2.1 1.9 2.2 205 2.0 0.0 2.0
Phosphomolybdate 546 2.4 2.4 2.4 551 2.8 2.5 2.9 549 2.4 2.8 2.4 554 2.3 3.5 2.3
Potassium 1,169 1.6 2.0 2.0 1,182 1.7 1.9 2.0 1,185 1.9 1.6 2.0 1,189 2.3 1.9 2.1
ISE, diluted 645 1.5 1.9 1.4 658 1.7 1.8 1.4 671 1.8 1.4 1.9 676 1.4 1.9 1.4
ISE, undiluted 518 1.5 2.0 1.4 518 2.1 1.9 2.2 509 0.0 1.5 2.0 506 2.5 2.0 2.4
Other method 6 1.9 2.7 2.9 6 3.7 3.2 4.0 5 2.2 2.9 3.4 7 2.4 4.8 2.8
Sodium 1,169 1.2 1.4 1.2 1,182 1.2 1.3 1.2 1,185 1.1 1.2 1.4 1,189 0.7 1.1 1.2
ISE, diluted 631 1.1 1.0 1.1 643 1.1 1.1 0.7 657 1.0 1.1 1.0 662 0.7 1.0 1.1
ISE, undiluted 532 1.4 1.3 1.3 533 1.4 1.4 1.3 523 1.3 1.3 1.4 520 1.4 1.1 1.5
Other method 6 0.9 1.5 0.9 6 1.1 0.8 0.8 5 1.5 0.8 1.2 7 1.4 1.2 1.9
Total bilirubin 1,644 5.7 11.7 5.8 1,657 5.3 11.6 5.6 1,669 9.1 5.7 10.2 1,674 5.4 10.2 5.5
Copper ion oxidation 102 7.4 11.5 7.0 102 6.3 9.0 5.9 113 8.7 8.3 8.6 111 8.8 10.0 9.7
Diazo-caffeine, sodium benzoate with blank 4 3.5 5.1 4.2 4 5.2 4.4 5.5 6 1.0 0.1 2.5 6 5.7 15.0 8.8
Diazo-dimethyl sulfoxide with blank 136 5.2 8.0 5.1 138 5.1 6.9 4.7 135 5.9 5.6 5.6 133 5.3 5.2 4.6
Diazo-dimethyl sulfoxide without blank 110 5.7 10.1 4.7 108 5.5 10.2 4.3 106 11.5 5.9 12.6 110 4.4 10.3 5.0
Diazo-dyphylline with blank 10 6.6 8.3 4.4 11 6.9 10.8 7.6 15 6.6 7.7 5.0 16 4.4 7.9 4.2
Diazonium salt-dyphylline without blank 5 7.9 0.6 2.2 5 1.0 12.6 2.7 3 4.3 8.1 5.8 3 4.5 3.9 6.9
Diazonium salt-surfactant with blank 533 6.2 12.9 6.8 538 5.2 12.3 6.2 554 11.6 5.9 11.5 559 5.9 11.3 5.1
Diazonium salt-surfactant without blank 30 10.0 7.3 7.8 30 12.1 8.4 4.5 30 6.3 9.4 6.0 28 8.9 12.6 11.3
Enzymatic oxidation 13 3.6 4.4 4.8 12 3.9 4.1 4.4 11 5.2 3.2 5.9 11 8.4 9.8 7.2
Other method 21 4.2 7.0 3.8 29 8.7 13.0 7.6 17 0.6 2.4 6.4 16 3.5 6.0 3.8
Vanadate oxidation 680 2.8 4.5 2.8 680 2.0 6.0 2.7 679 1.9 2.5 1.6 681 2.7 5.6 2.7
Total cholesterol 1,764 3.8 2.6 3.9 1,778 3.9 2.6 4.1 1,792 2.4 3.7 2.5 1,795 3.5 2.6 3.7
Cholesterol esterase 1,748 3.8 2.6 3.9 1,755 3.9 2.6 4.1 1,780 2.4 3.7 2.5 1,786 3.5 2.6 3.7
Other method 16 5.6 2.3 6.2 23 4.0 2.9 3.0 12 0.8 3.0 2.0 9 1.1 4.0 1.3
Total CO2 242 7.0 7.9 7.7 248 6.2 8.2 6.9 251 6.5 5.7 5.3 251 5.7 5.7 4.9
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase 242 7.0 7.9 7.7 248 6.2 8.2 6.9 251 6.5 5.7 5.3 250 5.7 5.6 4.9
Total iron-binding capacity 409 3.5 3.9 3.8 410 3.8 3.7 3.4 413 3.3 3.7 3.5 416 3.4 2.8 3.7
Bathophenanthroline 112 3.5 1.9 3.1 110 3.8 2.4 3.5 107 1.6 2.8 1.6 108 2.8 1.8 2.7
Chromazural B 25 3.2 3.5 4.4 25 2.9 3.2 2.4 26 3.2 3.0 3.5 25 3.2 2.5 3.7
Ferrozine 136 2.9 2.0 3.1 139 3.2 2.3 3.0 141 1.9 3.4 2.0 147 3.6 1.6 3.0
Nitroso-PSAP 135 2.6 3.4 2.7 135 2.5 3.8 2.5 137 2.9 1.9 3.3 135 1.6 2.7 2.0
Total protein 1,619 3.6 3.2 3.7 1,630 3.8 3.4 3.8 1,638 3.1 3.6 3.2 1,644 3.7 3.2 3.8
Biuret method 1,606 3.6 3.2 3.6 1,611 3.8 3.4 3.8 1,622 3.1 3.6 3.2 1,631 2.3 3.2 3.8
Other method 13 4.9 2.5 3.9 19 4.2 4.2 4.4 8 5.1 5.7 4.7 5 3.3 4.7 1.8
Triglyceride 1,723 5.4 4.3 5.2 1,738 5.4 4.2 5.7 1,750 4.8 5.5 4.4 1,753 5.3 4.8 5.5
Enzymatic with free glycerol elimination 596 3.5 2.9 3.8 602 3.8 3.6 4.1 608 3.0 3.8 3.5 609 3.5 3.4 3.7
Enzymatic without free glycerol elimination 1,113 6.0 4.7 5.6 1,114 6.3 4.4 6.4 1,131 4.7 6.2 4.8 1,136 5.8 4.5 6.1
Other method 14 6.7 3.1 6.3 22 7.0 3.2 9.1 11 2.6 5.9 4.1 8 10.1 5.1 9.5
Uric acid 1,327 3.2 3.4 3.2 1,348 3.3 3.2 3.3 1,353 2.0 3.3 2.0 1,361 3.4 3.1 3.2
Other method 7 3.4 5.9 4.8 12 3.3 4.5 4.0 5 3.4 2.6 4.0 5 1.0 9.7 3.8
Uricase 1,314 3.2 3.4 3.2 1,330 3.3 3.2 3.3 1,341 2.0 3.3 2.0 1,349 3.4 3.1 3.2
Uricase (dry chemistry) 6 1.0 1.6 2.9 6 2.1 2.9 1.3 7 1.6 2.9 2.6 7 2.8 3.1 2.9

Abbreviations: LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; P5P, pyridoxal-5-phosphate; BCG, bromocresol green; BCP, bromocresol purple; PNPP, para nitrophenylphosphate; AMP, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol; DEA, diethanolamine; EAE, 2-ethylaminoethanol; MDH, malate dehydrogenase; OCPC, o-creolphthalein complexone; NM-BAPTA, 5-nitro-5'-methyl-BAPTA; ISE, ion-selective electrodes; Nitroso-PSAP, 2-nitroso-5-(N-propyl-N-sulfopropylamino)-phenol; GLDH, glutamate dehydrogenase.

*Number of Laboratories participated in Korean External Quality Assessment Service 2022.

Lab Med Qual Assur 2023;45:81~94 https://doi.org/10.15263/jlmqa.2023.45.3.81
© Lab Med Qual Assur